by Ananya Jahanara Kabir and Ari Gautier

The traditional pole and line fishing forms the economic backbone of these islands and is India’s most sustainable commercial fishery. Photo by Shaista Banu.

by Mahmood Kooria

Folio from a government register of 1884 recording marriages, divorces and land transactions, using multiple languages and scripts: Jazari, Arabic, Arabic-Malayalam, in both Arabic and Vattuletu scripts, as well as Malayalam, Kannada and English. Credit: Mahmood Kooria.

by Bindu Menon

Opening shot of “Appalum Malanjiyum” (Source: YouTube)

by Abel Job Abraham and Aarthi Sridhar

The ring of reefs encircle a tranquil lagoon. Photo by Shweta Nair.

by Ananya Jahanara Kabir

I thank the artist Avanish Trivedi for permitting us to use his artwork for this essay.

by Ari Gautier

A view of Pondicherry in the 1970s (source:

by Luca Raimondi

by Sandrine Soukaï

The first indenture ship, L’ Aurelie, 1854 (source:

Le thinnai kreyol

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